Visual functions and processes conserved across species
Contributing Sections/Groups: CO, EY, GEN, LE, MOI, PH, RC, VI, VN
Organizers: Vivian Choh, Alexandra Benavente-Perez, Falk Schroedl
Speakers: Belinda Chang, James Jester, Jon Kaas, Kristen Koenig, Jacob Sivak
Whether through common ancestry or through convergent evolution, the eyes of most vertebrate and even some invertebrate species are very similar anatomically. It is therefore logical that many visual functions or processes might also be conserved across the species. This minisymposium provides examples of visual processes and functions that appear to be conserved across at least two species at different evolutionary levels.
ER stress and the unfolded protein response in ocular health and disease
Contributing Sections/Groups: GL, LV, PH, RC, RE
Organizers: Marina Gorbatyuk, Cristina Zeitz, Luminita Paraoan
Speakers: Marina Gorbatyuk, Stephanie A Hagstrom, Jonathan Lin, Mike Sapieha, Sarah Xin Zhang, Gulab Zode,
ER stress and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) are involved in the development of many ocular progressive disorders including retinitis pigmentosa, age-related retinal macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of premature, glaucoma and cataract. The minisymposium highlights roles of ER stress and UPR in progression of ocular diseases, presents different therapeutic strategies to treat ocular diseases and emphasizes the needs to promote a field from lab bench to clinical trials.
Vision and driving: Lessons learned and future directions
Contributing Sections/Groups: GL, LV, VI
Organizers: Ellen Freeman, Lisa Keay
Speakers: Felipe Medeiros, Cynthia Owsley, Sheila West, Joanne Wood
This minisymposium will review research on vision and driving done from a variety of approaches including on-road driving assessments, driving monitoring systems, self-reported driving, records of motor vehicle collisions, and driving simulators. Speakers will discuss how vision or eye disease affect the ability to perform various tasks related to safe driving or the risk of collision.
Barrier function of the ocular surface
Contributing Sections/Groups: IM
Organizers: Jun Shimazaki, Thomas A. Ferguson
Speakers: Pablo Argueso, Thomas A. Ferguson, M. Elizabeth Fini, Andrea Leonardi, Eric Pearlman, Stephen C. Pflugfelder, Jun Shimazaki, Mayumi Ueta
This minisymposium focuses on the primary function of the ocular surface, that is, the barrier function. The session includes morphological, biological, and immunological characteristics of the barrier function. The speakers will talk about how barrier functions are regulated, and their impairments are related to the development of major ocular surface diseases such as dry eye, infection, and allergy.
Corneal dystrophies: Where do we stand?
Contributing Sections/Groups: None
Organizers: Dimitrios Karamichos, Audrey Bernstein
Speakers: Penny A. Asbell, Keith Baratz, David Eveleth, Rodahl Eyvind, Dimitrios Karamichos, Eung Kweon Kim
This minisymposium includes discussion of three major blinding diseases affecting the cornea: corneal dystrophy, keratoconus, and Fuch’s dystrophy. Session presentations span novel cell biological mechanistic studies, to clinical treatments and outcomes, to new treatments and challenges to commercializing cell-based therapies.
Optical coherence tomography in pediatric neuro-ophthalmology
Contributing Sections/Groups: GL, LV, RC
Organizer: Frank A. Proudlock
Speakers: Robert Avery, Mays El-Dairi, Jack Gormley, Irene Gottlob, Anastasia Pilat, Frank A. Proudlock
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of adults with retinal and optic nerve diseases but until recently has not been readily available for use in children. Hand-held OCT now provides the possibility of imaging the retina and optic nerve head in infants and children from birth onwards. This minisymposium seeks to provide an overview of what we can currently achieve using hand-held OCT for the diagnosis and monitoring of pediatric neuro-ophthalmology cases. It also explores the contribution that hand-held OCT makes, improving our understanding of neuro-ophthalmological diseases in childhood.
Optic nerve regeneration: Barriers past and future
Contributing Sections/Groups: AP, BI, EY, NT, RC, RE, VN
Organizers: Brad Fortune, Adriana Di Polo, Nicholas Marsh-Armstrong
Speakers: Larry Benowitz, Jeffrey L. Goldberg, Dan Goldman, Zhigang He
Vision loss due to traumatic, ischemic and degenerative optic nerve conditions such as glaucoma is generally unrecoverable primarily because in mammals retinal ganglion cells, like other neurons throughout the central nervous system, fail to regenerate their axons beyond the site of injury to re-innervate their targets in the brain. Recent discoveries have uncovered endogenous mechanisms within retinal ganglion cells (RGC) that boost axon growth capacity, as well as RGC-intrinsic and RGC-extrinsic barriers to regeneration. When some of these factors are experimentally manipulated in animal models, they promote potent regenerative axon regrowth that extends beyond the site of injury through the optic nerve and, in some instances, reach the appropriate central targets culminating in the formation of appropriate synapses and functional recovery. This minisymposium will describe recent discoveries in this field, and will outline the critical barriers remaining before optic nerve regeneration can be used clinically.
All of the eye is a stage and immune cells are merely players
Contributing Sections/Groups: AP, RC
Organizers: Paul McMenamin, Daniel Saban, Florian Sennlaub
Speakers: Florent Ginhoux, Gerard A. Lutty, Paul McMenamin, Daniel Saban, Florian Sennlaub
Our understanding of the function of immune cells as well as the faithful discrimination of their subpopulations in the eye has been an emerging area in eye research. How various immune cell types crosstalk with peripheral nerves, macroglia, blood-ocular barriers and neurons in the retina, and other cell types in the choroid has led to new discoveries in mechanisms that underpin the maintenance of the health of ocular tissues.
The bench and the bedside: Who is the instructor?
Contributing Sections/Groups: CO, RE, VI
Organizers: Thomas A. Ferguson, Rachel R. Caspi
Speakers: Peter Coffey, Dan Kastner, Kohji Nishida, Paul A. Sieving, Thomas Waldmann
This minisymposium will honor Robert Burton Nussenblatt, a preeminent clinician-scientist in the field of inflammatory eye disease and Past President of ARVO, who passed away on April 17, 2016. The session is based on the theme of Bench to Bedside (and back); i.e., how basic research instructs clinical practice and vice versa, a concept to which he devoted his professional career. Distinguished researchers representing a broad range of topics will present novel therapies in various stages of clinical development driven by strong basic and mechanistic studies in their respective fields.
Membrane domains: Polarity, trafficking and assembly in the eye
Contributing Sections/Groups: AP, BI, CO, GL, RC
Organizers: Velia M. Fowler, Brad Fortune, Robert Mullins
Speakers: Vann Bennett, Silvia Finnemann, Velia M. Fowler, Kate E. Keller, Jaya Rajaiya
The diverse and specialized cell types in the eye rely on highly organized and spatially restricted micron-scale and nanometer-scale sized membrane domains to perform their unique tissue functions. This minisymposium will focus on scaffolding and cytoskeletal molecules that assemble and stabilize membrane domains to control cell morphogenesis, organelle trafficking and polarity, cell shape and mechanics, cell-cell interactions and communication, and tissue homeostasis. Common principles underlying membrane domain structures and functions will be examined in presentations on the neuron axonal initial segment, astrocyte polarity and endfeet processes, retinal pigment epithelial cell apical domains, corneal cell membrane trafficking and viral entry, and lens fiber cell morphogenesis and mechanics. The intersection between novel super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and well-established high resolution confocal and electron microscopy will be emphasized in the elucidation of molecular pathways and functional consequences, spanning from fundamental biology to ocular pathologies.
Genetics and modeling of lens and anterior segment anomalies
Contributing Sections/Groups: CO, GEN
Organizers: Jeff Gross, Elena Semina
Speakers: Robyn Jamieson, Salil Lachke, S. Amer Riazuddin, Elena Semina, Alan Shiels
This minisymposium focuses on identification of genetic lesions underlying lens and anterior segment anomalies in human patients and modeling these in a variety of in vitro and in vivo systems to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ocular pathologies.
Inflammaging and eye
Contributing Sections/Groups: CO, GL, IM, RC, RE
Organizers: Antonio Longo, Claudio Bucolo, Catherine Opere
Speakers: Stefano Gandolfi, Hani Levkovitch-Verbin, Dana Reza, Wai T. Wong, Heping Xu
This minisymposium of six presentations will provide a general view of the inflammation and age-related ocular diseases.
An eye on the eye microvasculature
Contributing Sections/Groups: RE
Organizers: Enrica Strettoi, Magali Saint-Geniez, Alan Stitt
Speakers: Patricia A. D'Amore, Kaustabh Ghosh, Gerard A. Lutty, Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan, Richard Spaide
Choroidal vessels play a relevant role in retinal and ocular homeostasis and their complex morphology and delicate balance can be perturbed by a number of factors often resulting in major pathological conditions. The minisymposium will bring together specialists in retinal microcirculation presenting state of the art concepts of choroidal biology and function that will be useful for many investigators of different ocular fields.
Common pathogenic role of inflammation in retinal diseases
Contributing Sections/Groups: BI
Organizers: Enrica Strettoi, Magali Saint-Geniez, Alan Stitt
Speakers: Steven Abcouwer, Sara Doyle, Goldis Malek, Victor L. Perez, Andrew Taylor, Wai T. Wong
The importance of inflammation as a primary contributor of ocular diseases is known for only few pathological conditions. However, recent data confirm a concurring pathogenic role of chronic inflammation even in disorders without a primary inflammatory cause. The minisymposium will focus on common immunological properties of the inflammatory response associated to major retinal pathologies, encompassing cellular aspects of the local microglial response and stimulating the notion of targeting inflammation to ameliorate the disease outcome.
Novel therapies and imaging techniques for retinal disorders
Contributing Sections/Groups: BI, GL, RC
Organizers: Elliott Sohn, Makoto Inoue, Robert Mullins
Speakers: Justis Ehlers, Elliott Sohn, Tim Stout, Masayo Takahashi, Budd Tucker, Nadia Waheed
Numerous scientific breakthroughs have allowed translational research of stem cell and gene therapy for inherited retinal disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa and atrophic AMD to develop at a rapid pace. Similarly, adaptation of OCT technology to integrated microscopic heads-up displays and non-invasive angiography are changing the way clinicians diagnose and treat patients. This minisymposium will highlight current retinal research and clinical application in 1) therapeutics: stem cell and gene therapy for inherited retinal disorders and 2) diagnostics: OCT-angiography and intra-operative OCT.
Age-related changes in optics of the eye and vision
Contributing Sections/Groups: CO, EY, GL, LE, VN
Organizers: Geunyoung Yoon, Lisa Ostrin
Speakers: Aki Kawasaki, Fabrice Manns, Allison Maree, Mckendrick, Jos Rozema, Thomas J T P Van Den Berg, James Wolffsohn
A better understanding of age-related changes in ocular components provides both scientifically and clinically important insights into mechanisms underlying the normal aging process of the eye and their association with age-related blinding eye diseases, leading to increasing the potential to detect and treat the diseases as early as possible.
Applications of adaptive optics for retinal imaging and visual function testing
Contributing Sections/Groups: CL, GL, LV, MOI, RC, RE, VN
Organizers: Ann Elsner, Thomas Raasch
Speakers: Stephen A. Burns, Jacque Duncan, Jennifer Hunter, Donald Miller, Ethan Rossi, William Tuten
New applications of adaptive optics are emerging for in vivo probing of retinal structure and function. The concept of adaptive optics will be explained for a wide variety of techniques, followed by several applications made possible by this technology. Examples include two photon imaging to visualize RPE and other cells, OCT to quantify photoreceptor and choriocapillaris structure, examination of retinal function, cone distributions, single particle blood velocity, ganglion cells, and the relationship between cone structure and function in inherited retinal diseases. These unprecedented views into the retina allow new thinking about the microcircuitry and metabolic support of local retina. The benefits include the potential for earlier and more accurate detection of pathology and more rapid assessment of the outcomes of treatment.
Beyond the retina: Central visual circuits
Contributing Sections/Groups: None
Organizers: Ronald Gregg, Rowland Taylor, Ulrike Grunert
Speakers: Aaron W. Mcgee, Peter Campbell, Sandra Kuhlman, Jess Cardin, Tania Seabrook
Vision is initiated in the retina. From there, signals from multiple channels pass to a number of brain regions where they are integrated and eventually form visual percepts. The topics to be covered in this minisymposium address the circuitry and plasticity of visual processing of various visual brain regions. Speakers will discuss dLGN, sub-cortical and cortical circuits and the integration of signal diversity established by retinal ganglion cell output. These speakers will emphasize the use of optogenetics and new transgenic tools that are rapidly advancing our understanding of the how the visual percept is formed.