Much of the work and policymaking of ARVO is done through the Board of Trustees and committees.

The Board of Trustees sets the strategic direction for ARVO and has the final responsibility and authority for all actions and policies that are recommended or adopted by standing and special committees, advisory councils and representatives to professional and governmental organizations, agents and employees.

The Board of Trustees is comprised of elected members from ARVO's 13 Scientific Sections along with elected and trustee-appointed officers. The president and vice president(s) are elected from within the Board each year. The executive vice president is elected by the general membership to a five-year term and is a voting member of the Board of Trustees. The ARVO executive director serves as an ex officio member of the Board. For more information on Board of Trustee duties, appointments and elections please refer to the bylaws.

Committees develop and implement specific programs and projects that address the long-range goals of ARVO. ARVO committees consist of a committee chair along with five to ten committee members, whatever is sufficient to complete the goals of the committee. ARVO officers, except vice president(s), are ex officio members of all committees.