Minisymposia

Minisymposia

Molecular and cellular insights into lens and cornea regeneration - LE
Contributing Sections: CO
Organizers: Jeff Gross, Kevin Schey, Salil Lachke
Speakers: Ales Cvekl, Jon Henry, Kang Zhang, Qiuli Fu, Shukti Chakravarti, and Kohji Nishida

Regeneration is an exciting area of research for lens and cornea with new discoveries arising at a staggering pace. This mini will explore novel discoveries in lens and cornea regeneration, focusing on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying commitment to lens and cornea fates, and generation of lens and cornea tissues for analyses and transplantation.

What's new in glaucoma imaging? - GL
Contributing Sections: MOI
Organizers: M. Francesca Cordeiro, Tony Realini, and Hiroshi Ishikawa
Speakers: Melissa Skala, Alex Huang, Hiroshi Ishikawa, M. Francesca Cordeiro

Attempts to improve monitoring and clinical endpoints in glaucoma have led to great advances in imaging. In the last five years, new ideas have been emerging to attempt to provide more tangible outcome measures. At the same time, existing techniques have been refined and adapted. This symposium will highlight new emerging methods which have great potential and application to glaucoma, and focus on advances in single cell and microstructural imaging.

Corneal regeneration in health and disease CO
Organizers: Nick Di Girolamo and Sophie X. Deng
Speakers: Shigeto Shimmura, Shigeru Kinoshita, James Funderburgh, Indumathi Mariappan, Nick Di Girolamo, and Sophie X. Deng

The overall goal of this mini symposium is to inform the scientific community of major break-throughs that have been made in recent times in the realm of corneal regeneration and how these findings can be used to develop novel clinical approached for patients with blinding corneal disease. Talks will cover the three cellular layers of the cornea (endothelium, stroma, and epithelium) and how stem cells maintain each during steady-state, wound-healing, disease and transplantation.

Primate retina and visual brain - VN
Contributing Sections: EY, RC, VI
Organizers: Ulrike Grunert, Jan Kremers, and Ronald Gregg
Speakers: Austin J. Roorda, Deniz Dalkara, W. Rowland Taylor, Paul R. Martin, and Alexandra Angelucci

This minisymposium will bring together leading experts in the primate visual system and cover morphological, physiological and gene therapy topics. A thorough understanding of the morphology and function of the visual system of human and non-human primates is essential for gene therapy of retinal diseases. To date, the large majority of studies are being carried out in rodent models, but there are significant differences between the eyes of mice and men. For a translation of the application to humans, work in non-human primates is therefore vital.

Circadian clocks in retinal health and diseases - RC
Contributing Sections: RE, VN
Organizers: Magali Saint-Geniez, Enrica Strettoi, and Alan Stitt
Speakers: Douglas McMahon, Russell Van Gender, Gianluca Tosini, Maria Grant, and Kai Kaarniranta

Emerging evidence indicates that the intrinsic circadian clock of the retina not only regulates retinal physiology and function but is also implicated in pathogenic processes. This minisymposium will provide an overview of the molecular regulations and functions of the diurnal and circadian rhythms in the retina, and highlight recent findings on the contribution of the autonomous circadian and diurnal clocks to retinal disease such as a diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.

Treatment on the horizon for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy - CO
Organizers: Noriko Koizumi and Keith H. Baratz
Speakers: Natalie A. Afshari, Michael P. Fautsch, Naoki Okumura, Ula Jurkunas, Albert Jun, and Sanjay Patel

Front-line scientists will introduce new findings covering the genetic basis, pathophysiology, and possible therapeutic approaches (pharmacological, genomic, and cell-based) for Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Open questions and debate following the presentations of these cutting-edge topics will help to clarify and disseminate these up-to-date concepts and novel findings, with the ultimate goal of accelerating the "bench to bedside" development of new therapeutic modalities for blinding corneal disease.

Implementation science in ophthalmology - CL
Contributing Sections: LV, RE
Organizers: Organizers: Lisa Keay, Bonnie Swenor, and Ecosse Lamoureux
Speakers: Anne Sales, Rajeev Ramchandran, Gullapalli N. Rao, Edith Holloway, and Judith Goldstein

Implementation science is the 'study of methods to promote the adoption and integration of evidence-based practices, interventions and policies into routine health care and public health settings.' While there are many proven strategies to prevent and treat eye diseases and rehabilitation models for those people with permanent vision loss, the large numbers of people around the world affected by vision impairment and blindness make provision of care a major challenge. In this mini-symposium, we will provide an overview of implementation science and how it can be applied in ophthalmology. A series of case series will then be presented demonstrating research in diagnosis, prevention, and rehabilitation.

Retinal lipid and glucose metabolism in health and disease - RC
Contributing Sections: BI, RE
Organizers: Alan Stitt, Magali Saint-Geniez, and Enrica Strettoi
Speakers: Lois Smith, Mahnaz Shahidi, Patrice Fort, Miriam Kolko, Thierry D. Leveillard, and Jianhai Du

The retina is one of the most metabolically demanding tissues in the body. Fluctuating energy demands in the retinal neurons, glia, and vascular cells often require lipid as well as glucose metabolism for energy. The highly complex regulation of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is beginning to be understood, and this mini-symposium will explore these pathways in various retinal cell types with in health and disease

Vergence eye movements and strabismus - EY
Organizer: Paul Gamlin
Speakers: Alexander Huk, T. Rowan Candy, Julie Quinet, Mark Walton, and Vallabh Das

Recent findings on the development of vergence eye movements and the dynamic sensory inputs controlling these eye movements will be discussed. Also, recent findings on the neural behaviors underlying vergence eye movements and strabismus will be presented.

From optics to electronics: New technologies for improving vision in health and disease - PH
Organizers: Antonio Longo, Claudio Bucolo, and Haiyan Gong
Speakers: Yi-Hsin Lin, J. Cliff Jones, Pablo Artal, Fabio Benfenati, and James D. Weiland

This minisymposium focus on some applications of the electronics in the field of vision (tunable liquid cristal lens, graphene contact lens for accommodation, adjustable power intraocular lens, organic and electronic retinal prosthesis): their concepts, technologies, and performance will be presented.

20/20 Visual acuity is not enough – again - VI
Organizers: Ann E. Elsner, Thomas Raasch, and Lisa Ostrin
Speakers: Arthur Shapiro, Kaithlyn Sapoznik, Russell Woods, Geunyoung Yoon, and Michael Bach

20/20 visual acuity cannot characterize the complexity of human vision. The useful vision includes a wide array of sub-systems. All of these depend on optical and neural substrates that work in sometimes surprising ways, moreso with changes due to adaptation or to disease. All of the sub-systems interact, such as central and peripheral vision interacting. This seminar will discuss how the visual system can differ from the ideal, what accommodations are made by the visual system itself, and how the characteristics of visual subsystems guide the potential for translational rescue of vision.

Why cancer inflames the eye – IM
Contributing Sections: AP
Organizers: Richard Lee, Lyndell Lim and James Rosenbaum
Speakers: Bahram Bodaghi, H. Nida Sen, Sophie Papa, Martine Jager, and Tara A. McCannel

Recent advances in non-ocular oncology treatments have included biologics such as pembrolizumab (a PD-
1/checkpoint inhibitor) and vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor) that are designed to incite the immune system against advanced, nonocular solid tissue tumours such as metastatic melanoma. These treatments have resulted in inadvertent (but not entirely unexpected) ocular side effects such as uveitis and other forms of ocular inflammatory diseases, such as scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease.
This symposium aims to cover potential disease mechanisms in uveitis that can be drawn from studies and clinical presentations in ocular oncology, as well as newly recognized disease pathways revealed by the experience with the aforementioned biologics used in none ocular oncology that has resulted in significant ocular inflammatory disease.

Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal and optic nerve disease – BI
Contributing Sections: RC, RE
Organizers: Janis T. Elles and Renu Kowluru
Speakers: Renu Kowluru, Deborah A. Ferrington, Robert Nickells, Divya Sinha, and Riccardo Natoli

Mitochondria are critical organelles for cell function and survival. Mitochondrial are essential for cellular bioenergetics, regulation of cell metabolism and control of programmed cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction severely affects tissue homeostasis and oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is a key determinant of cellular aging.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage to the retina and optic nerve are involved in retinal aging and degenerative diseases including age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Mitochondrial repair and attenuation of oxidative stress are critical to the long-term survival of the retina. Therapeutic strategies directed towards improving mitochondrial integrity and function and reducing oxidative stress have considerable potential for the treatment of retinal and optic nerve disease.

The nuts and bolts of novel drug development - AP
Contributing Sections: GL, RE, VN
Organizers: Shahar Frenkel, Tim Corson, and Colleen Cebulla
Speakers: Tim Corson, Eyal Banin, M. Francesca Cordeiro, Michael A. Steinmetz, and Srinivas R. Sadda

This mini-symposium will bring together diverse experts to describe the process of translating research findings into new therapies. It will highlight aspects of the development of laboratory findings into clinical models, finding lead compounds and biologics, biomarkers, and the challenges of funding trials of new agents.

Metabolic regulation of ocular immune responses - IM
Contributing Sections: BI, CO, LE, PH, RE
Organizers: Mary Marquart and Ashok Kumar
Speakers: Ashok Kumar, Barry T. Rouse, Rajendra Apte, Karsten Gronert, and Allen Taylor

Immunometabolism is an emerging area of investigation bridging distinct disciplines of microbiology, immunology, and biochemistry. It is well-established that both innate and adaptive immune cells are highly dynamic for their ability to rapidly transition from resting/patrolling to activated states in response to injury or infectious stimuli. Recent studies have revealed an important role of metabolic reprogramming, including dynamic regulation of aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), lipid synthesis and degradation, and mitochondrial activity, and the outcome of immune responses. This symposium will discuss the molecular underpinnings of
immunological/metabolic cross-talk in shaping immunity and in providing metabolic check points to modulate ocular immune responses.